The Fair Use doctrine is often evoked whenever someone wants to use a copyright-protected work in an educational setting without the formal permission of the copyright owner. However, determining fair use is not so cut-and-dry: Section 107 of the copyright law lays out four factors that must be weighed in determining whether a particular use of copyrighted material is "fair."
Fair Use must be evaluated for all College use of copyrighted materials not covered by ownership, licenses, public domain or a Creative Commons license.
Fair use photocopying for educational purposes is influenced by another issue:
- Brevity, or how much of the work you use.
Brevity influences whether a particular photocopy is considered a fair use: photocopying a smaller portion of a work (a paragraph or two) is more likely to fall under fair use than copying an entire chapter. But keep in mind that there are no hard and fast rules about how much of a work can be photocopied. Photocopying an entire journal article for educational use can fall within the fair use guidelines, if all other criteria support fair use.
Below are the four fair use factors listed in the the U.S. copyright law. Any determination of Fair Use must take all FOUR factors into consideration.
- Non-profit educational use is the easiest to be covered under fair use; most colleges, universities and non-profit educational institutions can easily claim fair use for this reason.
- Factual or scientific materials tend to fit under fair use better than creative works such as fiction, poetry, plays, etc. - again the materials used in the health sciences environment tend to meet this criteria well.
Unfortunately after these two criteria, the guidelines become less clear:
- How much of a work are you using? Are you using an entire journal issue, a large portion of the book (greater than 10%), most of the illustrations from an article or book? The greater the amount used, the less likely it is to be fair use. NOTE that use of a single journal article does not violate the "amount" criteria.
- Can you easily purchase the copies that you need? Is this a consumable item such as a study guide that should not be reproduced? Are you repeatedly using something under fair use when you should be paying royalties? Are you putting together a collection of articles in lieu of students purchasing a textbook with comparable information?
Adapted from "More Information on Fair Use," available online at https://www.copyright.gov/fair-use/more-info.html