What is copyright? Copyright is a set of laws that offer the copyright owner protection over his or her intellectual property, whether it is published or unpublished. Copyright law often comes into play when people want to use a copyrighted work in some way that encroaches on these owners' rights. Copyright protections give the owner the sole rights to:
From Copyright Basics, Circular 1, U.S. Copyright Office, available online at http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ01.pdf
Almost all works are copyrighted the moment they are created. This includes articles, songs, pictures, letters, and even memos. While facts and ideas cannot be copyrighted, the expression of facts or ideas can. It does not matter if the work is electronic or physical, published or unpublished.
If a work is published, often the publisher owns the copyright. If you authored an article, check the contract you signed at publication to determine who owns the copyright. Generally if a work is not published, then the copyright belongs to the author; however, if the work was created as a "work made for hire," then the copyright can belong to the author's employer. The "Intellectual Property Policy" of the Bryan College of Health Sciences defines "College Works" which are considered "work made for hire."
No. Since 1989, a work is no longer required by law to contain a copyright notice in order to receive copyright protection. Just because the work doesn't list a copyright notice does not mean that it is not copyright-protected.
Generally, you should seek permission to use the copyright-protected work. However, there are some situations in which you may use a copyright-protected work without first seeking permission; for example, if you are teaching a class at an academic institution, limited use of a copyright-protected work may qualify under the "Fair Use" clause in the Copyright Law. See the "Fair Use" section of this Guide for more details on when the College's Fair Use Checklist needs to be used. If a fair use defense cannot be made, work with a librarian to obtain permission to use a copyright-protected work.